Silicon Substitution in Nanotubes and Graphene via Intermittent Vacancies

Author(s)
Heena Inani, Kimmo Mustonen, Alexander Markevich, Er-Xiong Ding, Mukesh Tripathi, Aqeel Hussain, Clemens Mangler, Esko I. Kauppinen, Toma Susi, Jani Kotakoski
Abstract

The chemical and electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene can be modified by the presence of covalently bound impurities. Although this can be achieved by introducing chemical additives during synthesis, it often hinders growth and leads to limited crystallite size and quality. Here, through the simultaneous formation of vacancies with low-energy argon plasma and the thermal activation of adatom diffusion by laser irradiation, silicon impurities are incorporated into the lattice of both materials. After an exposure of similar to 1 ion/nm(2), we find Si-substitution densities of 0.15 nm(-2) in graphene and 0.05 nm(-2) in nanotubes, as revealed by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy. In good agreement with predictions of Ar irradiation effects in SWCNTs, we find Si incorporated in both mono- and divacancies, with similar to 2/3 being of the first type. Controlled inclusion of impurities in the quasi-1D and -2D carbon lattices may prove useful for applications such as gas sensing, and a similar approach might also be used to substitute other elements with migration barriers lower than that of carbon.

Organisation(s)
Physics of Nanostructured Materials
External organisation(s)
Aalto University
Journal
Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume
123
Pages
13136-13140
No. of pages
5
ISSN
1932-7447
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b01894
Publication date
05-2019
Peer reviewed
Yes
Austrian Fields of Science 2012
Physical chemistry, Materials physics
Keywords
Portal url
https://ucris.univie.ac.at/portal/en/publications/silicon-substitution-in-nanotubes-and-graphene-via-intermittent-vacancies(49ea6709-10a7-4c9f-ac91-96b9f059f459).html