Implanting Germanium into Graphene

Author(s)
Mukesh Tripathi, Alexander Markevich, Roman Böttger, Stefan Facsko, Elena Besley, Jani Kotakoski, Toma Susi
Abstract

Incorporating heteroatoms into the graphene lattice may be used to tailor its electronic, mechanical and chemical properties, although directly observed substitutions have thus far been limited to incidental Si impurities and P, N and B dopants introduced using low-energy ion implantation. We present here the heaviest impurity to date, namely 74Ge+ ions implanted into monolayer graphene. Although sample contamination remains an issue, atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and quantitative image simulations show that Ge can either directly substitute single atoms, bonding to three carbon neighbors in a buckled out-of-plane configuration, or occupy an in-plane position in a divacancy. First-principles molecular dynamics provides further atomistic insight into the implantation process, revealing a strong chemical effect that enables implantation below the graphene displacement threshold energy. Our results demonstrate that heavy atoms can be implanted into the graphene lattice, pointing a way toward advanced applications such as single-atom catalysis with graphene as the template.

Organisation(s)
Physics of Nanostructured Materials
External organisation(s)
University of Nottingham, Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf (FZD)
Journal
ACS Nano
Volume
12
Pages
4641-4647
No. of pages
7
ISSN
1936-0851
Publication date
05-2018
Peer reviewed
Yes
Austrian Fields of Science 2012
Ion physics, Electron microscopy, Nanomaterials, Experimental physics
Keywords
ASJC Scopus subject areas
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Portal url
https://ucris.univie.ac.at/portal/en/publications/implanting-germanium-into-graphene(6a728c6f-e896-454e-92cf-bb674beb547e).html