Two-step implantation of gold into graphene

Author(s)
Alberto Trentino, Kenichiro Mizohata, Georg Zagler, Manuel Längle, Kimmo Mustonen, Toma Susi, Jani Kotakoski, E. Harriet Åhlgren
Abstract

As a one-atom thick, mechanically strong, and chemically stable material with unique electronic properties, graphene can serve as the basis for a large number of applications. One way to tailor its properties is the controlled introduction of covalently bound heteroatoms into the lattice. In this study, we demonstrate efficient implantation of individual gold atoms into graphene up to a concentration of 1.7 x 10(11) atoms cm(-2) via a two-step low-energy ion implantation technique that overcomes the limitation posed by momentum conservation on the mass of the implanted species. Atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal gold atoms occupying double vacancy sites in the graphene lattice. The covalently bound gold atoms can sustain intense electron irradiation at 60 kV during the microscopy experiments. At best, only limited indication of plasmonic enhancement is observed. The method demonstrated here can be used to introduce a controlled concentration of gold atoms into graphene, and should also work for other heavier elements with similar electronic structure.

Organisation(s)
Physics of Nanostructured Materials
External organisation(s)
University of Helsinki
Journal
2D Materials
Volume
9
No. of pages
7
ISSN
2053-1583
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/ac4e9c
Publication date
02-2022
Peer reviewed
Yes
Austrian Fields of Science 2012
103042 Electron microscopy, 103018 Materials physics
Keywords
ASJC Scopus subject areas
Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry(all), Materials Science(all)
Portal url
https://ucris.univie.ac.at/portal/en/publications/twostep-implantation-of-gold-into-graphene(53fbf56d-b6bc-4421-9a7f-55b0dc022ab5).html